宁夏11选5

18年专注锂电池定制

贵金属在直接甲醇燃料电池催化剂的应用

来源:钜大LARGE    2019-09-02    点击量:477

宁夏11选5CENGLIHUI,CENGYONGKANG,PANLIJUAN,ZHANGZHIXIANG,WENYONGZHONG


宁夏11选5(XIBEIYOUSEJINSHUYANJIUYUAN,SHANXIXIAN710016)


宁夏11选5ZHAIYAO:DIANJICUIHUAJISHIRANLIAODIANCHIZUJIANZHONGDEGUANJIAN,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGZHEDIANCHIXINGNENGJIRANLIAODIANCHIDECHANYEHUAJINCHENG。ZONGSHULEZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIDIANJICUIHUAJIZHONGGUIJINSHUDEYINGYONG。CONGRANLIAODIANCHIDEYANGJICUIHUAJIHEYINJICUIHUAJI2GEFANGMIANCHANSHULEYINGYONGGUIJINSHUDEYANJIUJINZHAN,BINGDUIQIWEILAIFAZHANJINXINGLEZHANWANG。


宁夏11选5SUIZHEMEI、SHIYOUDENGHUASHINENGYUANDERIYIKUJIE,RENLEISHEHUIZHENGMIANLINZHEYUELAIYUEYANZHONGDENENGYUANWEIJI;ZAISHIYONGHUASHINENGYUANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,SUOCHANSHENGDELIUHUAWU、DANYANGHUAWUYIJITANYANGHUAWUDENGWURANQITIYIJINGJIHUANJINGDAILAILEJUDADEPOHUAI。ZHIZIJIAOHUANMORANLIAODIANCHIZUOWEIYIZHONGKEZAISHENG、QINGJIEWUWURANDEXINXINGNENGYUANZHENGSHOUDAOYUELAIYUEDUODEGUANZHU[1~3]。ZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHI(DMFC)SHIYIZHONGYIYETIJIACHUNWEIRANLIAODEXINXINGZHIZIJIAOHUANMORANLIAODIANCHI,BUJINJUYOUYUANLIAOLAIYUANFENGFU、BIGONGLVGAO、KEDIWENQIDONG、QINGJIEHUANBAODENGYOUDIAN,ERQIEXIANGDUIQITAYOUJIRANLIAOERYAN,JIACHUNJUYOUHENGAODEDIANCUIHUAHUOXING,HENYOUXIWANGZUOWEIDIANDONGQICHE、DIANDONGMOTUOCHE、DIANDONGLUNYICHEYIJISHOUTIDIANNAODENGDEDONGLIDIANYUAN,JUYOUGUANGKUODEYINGYONGQIANJING。


而且与其他一、二次蓄电池相比,DMFC在军事领域应用具有诸多优点:(1)可靠安全,因无运动部件,系统安静,事故少;(2)完全的模块化使得组合灵活;(3)无记忆效应。由于甲醇是液体,管理方便、储运安全、来源广泛方便及运输方式多样,能保证军事能源供给。因此DMFC是包括铅酸电池和锂电池宁夏11选5在内的常规电池的最佳换代电源,将有可能广泛应用于军事,对加强国防建设具有非常重要的意义[4]。


ZUOWEIDMFCZUIZHONGYAODEZUJIANZHIYIDECUIHUAJIMIQIEGUANXIDAORANLIAODIANCHIDEXINGNENGZHIBIAO,YIZHIYILAIDOUSHIRANLIAODIANCHIHECUIHUAJIKEYANGONGZUOZHEDEYANJIUZHONGDIANNEIRONG。MUQIAN,DMFCSUOYONGDECUIHUAJIZHUYAOYIBODENGGUIJINSHUWEIZHUYAOCHENGFEN。YOUYUJUYOUJIAOGAODEJIACHUNYANGHUACUIHUAHUOXINGHEJIAOQIANGDENAIFUSHIXINGNENG,GUONEIWAIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGCUIHUAJIDEYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIPt,PdDENGGUIJINSHUCUIHUAJISHANG;ERDUIYUZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIDEYINJIGUOCHENG—YANGDECUIHUAHAIYUAN,ZHUYAOGUANZHUDEGUIJINSHUCUIHUAJISHIYIPtWEIZHUCUIHUAJI。


1直接甲醇燃料电池的阳极贵金属催化剂


宁夏11选5ZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIDEYANGJIZHUYAOFASHENGDESHIJIACHUNZAICUIHUAJISHANGDEDIANCUIHUAYANGHUAGUOCHENG。YOUYUJUYOUJIAOGAODEJIACHUNYANGHUACUIHUAHUOXINGHEJIAOQIANGDENAIFUSHIXINGNENG,GUONEIWAIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGCUIHUAJIDEYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIPt、PdDENGGUIJINSHUCUIHUAJISHANG。


1.1DANYIZUFENCUIHUAJI


宁夏11选5GloaguenDENG[5]YONGDIANHUAXUECHENJIFAJIANGNAMIPtFUZHEDAOBUTONGDETANZAITISHANG,PINGJIALEQIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGDECUIHUAXINGNENG。JIEGUOFAXIAN,GAIXILIEPt/CCUIHUAJIDECUIHUAHUOXINGSUIBIBIAOMIANJIZENGJIAERTIGAO;ERQIEZAITIDUICUIHUAJIDECUIHUAHUOXINGYOUHENDADEYINGXIANG,JINGGUORECHULIDETANZAITISHIPtDEZHILIANGBIHUOXING(mass activity,A/g)HEMIANJIBIHUOXING(specific activity,A/cm2)DOUYOUHENDATIGAO。MukerjeeDENG[6]BIJIAOYANJIULEGAOLVSUANRONGYEZHONGCUNZAIHUOBUCUNZAIJIACHUNDEQINGKUANGXIA,LIDUWEI2.5~9nmDEPt/CCUIHUAJIDEYUANWEIXSHEXIANXISHOU(XAS)。JIEGUOBIAOMING,DANGLIDUXIAOYU5nmSHI,CUIHUAJIBIAOMIANHWUZHONG、OHWUZHONGHECODEXIFUZENGQIANG,CONGERDAOZHICUIHUAJIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGDECUIHUAHUOXINGJIANGDI。PENGCHENGDENG[7]YANJIULEJIACHUNZAITANZAIPtNAMIWEILIXIUSHIDEBOTANDIANJISHANGDEDIANCUIHUAYANGHUAXINGNENG,FAXIANXIUSHIDIANJIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAYOUJIAOGAODEDIANCUIHUAHUOXING。


1.2ERYUANZUFENCUIHUAJI


YOUYUDANYIZUFENDECUIHUAJIBIAOXIANDECUIHUAHUOXINGHAISHIBIJIAODI,WUFAMANZUSHIJIYINGYONG。XUNQIUGENGHUOPODEJIACHUNYANGHUADEDIANCUIHUACAILIAODEYANJIUGONGZUOZHUYAOSHIZAIBOZHONGTIANJIAQITAJINSHUYUANSUZHONGZHANKAIDE。ERYUANBOXICUIHUAJIDEDAOLEMIQIEGUANZHUHESHENRUYANJIU。ZAIZHONGDUODEERYUANPtXICUIHUAJIZHONG,Ru、Sn、W、MoDENGZUOWEIZHUCUIHUAJIDUIJIACHUNZAIPtBIAOMIANDEYANGHUAJUYOUMINGXIANDEGAISHANZUOYONG。Pt-RuSHIYANJIUZUIDUODEERYUANCUIHUAJIZHIYI。TONGCHANG,JIACHUNZAIPtBIAOMIANDEYANGHUADIANWEIWEI0.2~0.25V。DANSHI,CHUNPtBIAOMIANZAIDIYU0.5VSHIBUHUIXINGCHENGHANYANGWUZHONG,ERRuYUANZINENGZAI0.2~0.3VDEDIANSHIFANWEINEIXIFUHANYANGWUZHONG,YINERPt-RuCUIHUAJIYOULIYUDUXINGZHONGJIANTICOZAIJIAODIDIANWEIXIADEYANGHUAXIAOHAO。


LINGYIFANGMIAN,RuDEJIARUYEKEYITONGGUODIANZIXIAOYINGJIANRUOPtHEFANYINGZHONGJIANTICOZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONG,CONGERYOULIYUGAISHANCUIHUAJIDECUIHUAHUOXINGHEYANZHANGQISHIYONGSHOUMING。GasteigerDENG[8]RENWEI,Pt-RuCUIHUAJIBIAOMIANYANGHUACODEJIZHIYULangmuir-HinshelwoodFANYINGJIZHIYIZHI。VenkataramanDENG[9]DUIHEJINTAIHEFEIHEJINTAIPt-RuCUIHUAJIDEBIJIAOYANJIUBIAOMING,HOUZHEJUYOUGENGHAODEJIACHUNYANGHUACUIHUAHUOXINGHEKANGCONENGLI。JIUQIYUANYIN,KENENGSHIYINWEIHEJINTAIPt-RuCUIHUAJIZHONGRuQIANRUPtJINGGEERJIANGDILERuDELIYONGLV。TAMENRENWEI,CONGJIACHUNDIANYANGHUADEJIAODU,XIWANGPt-RuCUIHUAJIZHONGPtWEIHAIYUANTAI,RuWEIYANGHUATAI,HAIYUANTAIDEPtZHUYAOFUZEJIACHUNDEDIANXIFUHETUOZHIZIGUOCHENG,ERYANGHUATAIDERuZEFUZESHUIFENZIDEHUOHUAYITIGONGBIAOMIANHUOXINGHANYANGWUZHONG、YANGHUAXIAOCHUZHONGJIANCHANWU。DANSHI,MUQIANERYAN,Pt-RuCUIHUAJIZHONG,PtHERuJIUJINGYIHEZHONGXINGTAICUNZAICUIHUAXIAOGUOZUIYOUSHANGYOUZHENGYI。


WDUIJIACHUNZAIPtBIAOMIANDIANYANGHUADEZHUCUIHUAZUOYONGZHUYAOLAIYUANYUFANYINGGUOCHENGZHONGWYANGHUATAIDEXUNSUZHUANBIAN。YIBANRENWEI,ZHEIZHONGYANGHUAHAIYUANZUOYONGYOUZHUYUSHUIDEJIELIXIFU,FENGFUCUIHUAJIBIAOMIANDEHANYANGJITUAN,TONGSHIDUIXIFUZAIPtBIAOMIANDEZHIZIZHUANYIYEYOUYIDINGZUOYONG。ShuklaDENG[10]KAOCHALEPt-WO3/CCUIHUAJIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGDECUIHUAZUOYONG,FAXIANPt:W=3:1(YUANZIBI)SHICUIHUAHUOXINGZUIGAO;TesungDENG[11]FAXIANPt-WO3/CDUIJIACHUNYANGHUADEDONGLIXUEXINGNENGTIGAOYOUMINGXIANZUOYONG,ZUOZHEJIANGZHIGUIYINWEIQINGBIAOMIANDEYILIUXIAOYING,SHIDEQINGDEYANGHUAHUOJIACHUNDEYANGHUADOUKETONGGUOWO3YIHxWO3DEXINGSHICHUANDIZHIZI,CONGERDADAOKUAISUZHUANYIQING、TIGAODONGLIXUESUDUDEXIAOGUO。


MoDUIJIACHUNDIANCUIHUAYANGHUADEZUOYONGLEISIYUW,QIZHUCUIHUAZUOYONGZHUYAOLAIZIYUFANYINGGUOCHENGZHONGYANGHUATAIDEXUNSUZHUANBIAN,CONGERDADAOHUOHUABINGFENJIESHUIFENZI、TIGONGFENGFUHUOXINGYANGWUZHONGDEMUDE。WENXIAN[12]ZHENGSHILEMUSUANYANDECUNZAIYOUZHUYUJIACHUNZAIPtSHANGDEDIANCUIHUAYANGHUAFANYING,RENWEIMoDEZHUCUIHUAZUOYONGZHUYAOLAIZIYUMo(Ⅲ)HEMo(Ⅵ)ZHIJIANDEZHUANBIAN,QIEPt:Mo=3:1(YUANZIBI)SHICUIHUAJIKANGCOZHONGDUDENENGLIHEYUANZIBIWEI1:1DEPt-RuCUIHUAJIXIANGDANG;GrgurDENGFAXIANPt-Mo/CZAIH2SO4ZHONGDUICODIANHUAXUEYANGHUADECUIHUAJIZHIYUPt-Ru/CXIANGSI,RuDEZUOYONGSHIZAIQIBIAOMIANXINGCHENGRu(OH)ads,ERMoYUANZIBIAOMIANZEXINGCHENGMoO(OH)2,LIANGZHEJUNKEYIZUOWEIYANGHUAXIFUTAICODEYANGHUAJI[13,14]。Pt-SnSHILINGYIGEYANJIUJIAOWEIGUANGFANDEERYUANCUIHUAJI。SnDEZUOYONGYINJIARUFANGSHIDEBUTONGERBUTONG,HEJINJIEGOUDESnNENGYINQIPtDEdDIANZIGUIDAOBUFENTIANCHONG,BINGYINQIPt-PtJINSHUJIANDESHENZHANG。


宁夏11选5ZHEIBULIYUJIACHUNZAIPtBIAOMIANDEXIFUJIC-HJIANDEDUANLIE,DANNENGJIANRUOCODENGZHONGJIANWUZAICUIHUAJIBIAOMIANDEXIFU。SnDEZHUCUIHUAZUOYONGJIHANLIANGMUQIANRENGCUNZHENGYI,DANQINGXIANGYURENWEIQIZUOYONGSHITONGGUODIANZIXIAOYINGLAISHIXIANDE。


1.3SANYUANZUFENCUIHUAJI


ZAIPt-RuJICHUSHANGTIANJIAQITAZUFENGOUCHENGSANYUANCUIHUAJI,YITIGAOCUIHUAJIDEHUOXINGHEWENDINGXINGSHIMUQIANYANJIUDEREDIAN,YANJIUJIAOCHENGGONGDEYOUPt-Ru-W,Pt-Ru-Os,Pt-Ru-Mo,Pt-Ru-NiDENGTIXI[15,16]。RothDENGREN[17]TONGGUODIAOBIANDEBönnemannFAZHIBEILEPtRuWOx/C,BINGYINGYONGYUZHIJIECHUNLEIRANLIAODIANCHIYANGJI,DIANCHIDEXINGNENGBICAIYONGE-TEKDEPtRu/CDIANCUIHUAJIDEDIANCHITIGAOLE40%。GötzDENGREN[18]ZEJINYIBUKAOCHALECAIYONGBönmemannFAZHIBEIDEPtRuWOx/C,PtRuSn/C,PtRuMo/CYIJIPtRu/C(E-TEK)CUIHUAJI,JIEGUOBIAOMING,WULUNSHIDUIZHONGZHENGQI(HAN150µL/LCO)HAISHIDUIJIACHUNDEDIANCUIHUAYANGHUA,PtRuWOx/CDOUBIAOXIANCHUZUIGAODEDIANCUIHUAHUOXING。JINYIBUDEGONGZUOBIAOMING[19],Pt/Ru/WDEZUIYOUYUANZIBIWEIl/1/l.5,YIQIWEIYANGJIDEZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODANCHIXINGNENGBICAIYONGE-TEKDEPtRu/CDIANCUIHUAJIDEDIANCHITIGAOLE80%。WENGANGYAODENG[20]CAIYONGHUAXUEHAIYUANCHENJIFAZHIBEILEPt-Ru-WO3/CCUIHUAJI,YANJIULEQIDUIJIACHUNDEDIANCUIHUAYANGHUAXINGNENG。JIEGUOBIAOMING,GAICUIHUAJIDECUIHUAHUOXINGMINGXIANYOUYUTONGFANGFAZHIBEIDEPt-Ru/CHEPt-WO3/CCUIHUAJI,QIEPt、Ru、WDEYUANZIBIWEI3:1:2DECUIHUAJIXINGNENGZUIJIA。


1.4DUOYUANZUFENCUIHUAJI


ReddingtonDENG[21]DUIJIACHUNYANGHUADEDIANCUIHUAJIJINXINGLEDAMIANJIZUHESHAIXUAN,KAOCHALEPt、Ru、Os、IrHERhZUCHENGDE5GEDANJINSHU、80GEERYUAN、280GESANYUANHE280GESIYUANGONG645ZUCUIHUAJIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGDECUIHUAXINGNENG,SHAIXUANCHUHUOXINGZUIGAODECUIHUAJIWEIPt44-Ru41-Os10-Ir5。GAICUIHUAJIZAI60℃SHIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUADECUIHUAHUOXINGMINGXIANGAOYUPt50-Ru50。ZUOZHERENWEIOsDEJIERUCUJINLESHUIFENZIZAICUIHUAJIBIAOMIANDEXIFUHEHUOHUA,IrDEJIARUZEYOUZHUYUC-HJIANDEHUOHUACONGERXUNSUSHIFANGPtHUOXINGWEI,BAOZHENGLEJIACHUNDEJISHILIANXUXIFU;AricoDENG[22]KAOCHALEPt-Ru-Sn-W/CSIYUANHEJINCUIHUAJIZUOWEIDMFCYANGJICUIHUAJIDEXINGNENG,BANDIANCHISHIYANJIEGUOBIAOMING,GAICUIHUAJIDUIJIACHUNYANGHUAGUOCHENGDECUIHUAHUOXINGYOUYUPt/CCUIHUAJI。ZUOZHERENWEI,ZHEISHIYINWEIGAICUIHUAJIZHONGCUNZAISnO2,RuO2HEWO2/WO3DENGCHENGFEN,WEICOJINYIBUYANGHUATIGONGLEYANGWUZHONG,ERQIEGEJINSHUYUANSUZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONGGAIBIANLECUIHUAJIDEDIANZIHUANJING。


2直接甲醇燃料电池的阴极贵金属催化剂


YOUYUPtDUIYANGHAIYUANYOUJIAOGAODEDIANCUIHUAHUOXINGYUWENDINGXING,BOJIBOJICUIHUAJISHIDAOMUQIANWEIZHIYANJIUZUIDUODEYANGHAIYUANDIANCUIHUAJI。ZAOZAIDUILINSUANYANRANLIAODIANCHIYANJIUKAISHI,DUIBOJIBOHEJINDEYANJIUJIJINGBIJIAOSHENRU。ZAIZHIZIJIAOHUANMORANLIAODIANCHIYANJIUZAOQI,ZHUYAOCAIYONGCHUNHEICUIHUAJI,PtYONGLIANGZHISHAO4mg/cm2YISHANG,DAO70NIANDAICHU,JIANGBODANZAIYUTANHEISHANG,DADATIGAOLEBODEFENSANDU,CONGERTIGAOLEBODELIYONGLV。DANYOUYUYANGDIANJIDEGUODIANWEIJIAOGAO,YUCHUNQINGYANGDIANJIXIANGBI,YIBANCAIYONGZAILIANGJIAOGAOPt/CDIANCUIHUAJI。LINGWAI,YOUYUCAIYONGTANDANZAIDEDIANCUIHUAJIYOUYIDINGDEZENGSHUIXING,YIYUXINGCHENGQITITONGDAO,YINCI,MUQIANXINGNENGZUIGAODEJIACHUNKONGQIDIANCHIDEYINJICAIYONGDEJIUSHI40wt.%Pt/CDIANCUIHUAJI[23]。GAOFENSAN、GAOZAILIANGGUIJINSHUDEPt/CDIANCUIHUAJISHIZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIGUANGFANCAIYONGDEYINJIDIANCUIHUACAILIAO。XUHONGFENGDENG[24]CAIYONGJIAQUANHAIYUANFAZHIBEICHUGAOFENSANDEPt/CCUIHUAJI。ZHOUZHENHUADENG[25]TONGGUODIAOBIANDEDUOYUANCHUNFAZHIBEILEGAOXINGNENGDE40%Pt/CZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIYINJIDIANCUIHUAJI,BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGTANTAOLEKENENGDEZHIBEIGUOCHENGJILI。


RoyDENG[26]LIYONGFEIJINSHUYUANSUNHESGAIXINGPt/CCUIHUAJIZHIDEN-Pt/C,S-Pt/CZUOWEIYANGHAIYUANCUIHUAJI。YANJIUJIEGUOBIAOMING,LIANGZHEJUNJUYOUBIPt/CGENGHAODEYANGHAIYUANCUIHUAHUOXING,ERQIEQIAOSHIJIEHEDES-Pt/CCUIHUAJIXIAOGUOGENGHAO;ReeveDENG[27]DUICUIHUAJIRe-Ru-S/CHEMo-Ru-S/CDEYANJIUJIEGUOBIAOMING,SDECUNZAITIGAOLECUIHUAJIDEYANGHAIYUANCUIHUAHUOXINGHEKANGJIACHUNZHONGDUXINGNENG;XiongDENG[28]CAIYONGHCOONaGONGHAIYUANDEFANGFAZHIBEILEPt-M/C(M=Fe、Co、Ni、Cu)HEJINCUIHUAJI,BINGJINXINGLEQUANDIANCHIXINGNENGYANJIU,FAXIANPt-M/CDUIYANGDECUIHUAXINGNENGMINGXIANGAOYUPt/C,QIZHONGPt:Co=7:1(MOERBI)DECUIHUAJIPt-Co/CBIAOXIANCHUZUIJIADECUIHUAXIAOGUO;TAMENHAIFAXIANDUIPt-M/CJINXING200℃DEBEISHAOYINKEJIANSHAOBIAOMIANYANGHUAWUERYOULIYUQICUIHUAXINGNENGDEJINYIBUTIGAO;DrilletDENG[29]TONGGUOBANDIANCHIBIJIAOYANJIULEH2SO4/CH3OHTIXIZHONGPtHEPt70-Ni30ZUOWEIYINJICUIHUAJIDEXINGNENG,FAXIANPt70-Ni30WULUNYANGHAIYUANCUIHUAHUOXINGHAISHINAIJIACHUNNENGLIDOUXIANZHUYOUYUPt;LiDENG[30]LIYONGCHUNHAIYUANDEFANGFAZHIBEILEPt-Fe/CCUIHUAJIYONGYUYANGCUIHUAHAIYUANYANJIU,FAXIANFeDETIANJIAYOULIYUH2O2DEFENJIE,ERQIEGAOWENRECHULIKEYISHIPt-Fe/CDECUIHUAHUOXINGMINGXIANTIGAO,QIZHONG300℃CHULIDEPt-Fe/CBIAOXIANCHUZUIJIADECUIHUAXINGNENG;WENXIAN[29]ZHIBEILEJUYOU2nmWEIKONGJIEGOUDEPt-FePOYONGZUOYANGDIANJICUIHUAJI。DIANHUAXUECESHIXIANSHI,ZAIPtZAILIANG0.1mg/cm2,DIANWEI0.95V(vsRHE)SHI,GAICUIHUAJIDUIYANGCUIHUAHAIYUANDEZHILIANGBIHUOXINGDA20.5A/gPt,ERE-TEKDESHANGYEPt(19.7%,ZHILIANGFENSHU)/CCUIHUAJIZAITONGTIAOJIANXIADEZHILIANGBIHUOXINGJINWEI14.3A/gPt,ERQIEGAICUIHUAJIHAIJUYOUBISHANGSHUE-TEKCUIHUAJIGENGGAODEKANGJIACHUNZHONGDUNENGLI。ZHEIZHUYAOGUIJIEYUQIZAITIFePOJIEGOUSHANGHUOYUEDEYANGXUANZEHAIYUANJIZHI:YANGSHOUXIANXIFUZAITIEDEGUOYANGHUAQINGWUZHONGSHANG,RANHOUHENKUAIZAIPtBIAOMIANBEIHAIYUANCHENGSHUI。


LINGWAI,ZAIPt-FePOCUIHUAJIZHONGHAIGUANCHADAOYOUPt2+HEPt4+DECUNZAI,ZHEIYUSHIZHEYUJINSHUTAIPtXIANGBILIZITAIPtCUIHUAJIDEKANGJIACHUNZHONGDUXINGNENGGENGHAO。


宁夏11选5DUIYUBOZHONGTIANJIAGUODUJINSHUYANGHUAWUCUIHUAJI,MUQIANZHUYAOZHIZAIBOCUIHUAJIZHONGJIARUV,Ce,ZrDEYANGHUAWU,ZHEILEIYANGHUAWUYOUJIAOGAODECHUYANGNENGLI[31,32]。CHANZADEMUDESHITIGAOYANGDIANJIDUIYANGDEFUJIYUHUOHUAZUOYONG,ZHEIDUIYUZIHUXIDEZHIJIEJIACHUNKONGQIDIANCHIYOUWEIZHONGYAO。


3展望


SUIZHENENGYUANWEIJIDERIYIJIAJUHEZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIDEBUDUANSHENRUYANJIU,GAODANZAIDEGUIJINSHUDIANCUIHUAJIRENGRANSHIZHIJIECHUNLEIRANLIAODIANCHIGUANGFANCAIYONGDEDIANCUIHUACAILIAO,GUIJINSHUCUIHUAJIZAIZHIJIEJIACHUNRANLIAODIANCHIZHONGDEZUOYONGYULAIYUZHONGYAO,YINGYONGXUQIUYUELAIYUEDA。RANERGUIJINSHUDEZIYUANKUIFA,JIAGEANGGUI,YINCIWEILAIDEYANJIUXUYAOBUDUANTIGAOGUIJINSHUDELIYONGLV。TONGSHITONGGUOJIANDANDEGUOCHENGZHIBEILIJINGKEKONGDEGAODANZAIGAOFENSANDEGUIJINSHUDIANCUIHUAJIFEICHANGJUYOUTIAOZHANXING;DUIYUDUOZUYUANDEGUIJINSHUCUIHUAJI,ZAINAMICHIDUSHANGYOUXIAODIKONGZHIQIBIAOMIANYUTIXIANGHUAXUEZUCHENGYUJIEGOUYESHIJIDAICUIHUAJIYANJIUGONGZUOZHEJINXINGYANJIUJIEJUE。


CANKAOWENXIAN


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宁夏11选5[9]Venkataraman R,Kunz H R,Fenton J M.Journal of the Electrochemical Society[J],2003,150(3):A278


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